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Biceps: Anatomy and Function


The biceps brachii, commonly referred to as the biceps, is a prominent muscle located in the front of the

upper arm. It consists of two heads, thus the name "biceps":

1. Long Head: This head originates from the supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula, which is a small

bump on the top part of the shoulder blade. It runs down the arm and attaches to the radius

bone in the forearm.

2. Short Head: The short head originates from the coracoid process of the scapula, a more

forward-projecting part of the shoulder blade. It also joins the long head to attach to the radius.

These two heads work together to form the biceps brachii, and they give it its distinctive "two-headed"



The biceps brachii serves several important functions:

1. Flexion of the Elbow: This is the most well-known function of the biceps. When you bend your

elbow, the biceps contract, pulling the forearm toward the shoulder. This motion is commonly

known as "curling" the arm.

2. Supination of the Forearm: The biceps also play a crucial role in rotating the forearm. When you

turn your palm up, as if you were holding a bowl of soup, the biceps are responsible for this

motion. This is called supination.

3. Assisting in Shoulder Flexion: While the primary muscle responsible for lifting the arm forward

is the deltoid, the biceps can assist in this motion, especially when the weight is being lifted.

4. Stabilization of the Shoulder Joint: The long head of the biceps helps stabilize the head of the

humerus within the shoulder socket, especially in activities that require overhead movements.

It's important to note that while the biceps are a powerful muscle, it often works in conjunction with

other muscles of the arm, shoulder, and back to perform complex movements. Additionally, strong

biceps contribute to overall arm strength and can have functional benefits in activities of daily living and


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